Who knew?! Buried among more than 1,000 pages of a new final rule with comment period on payments to physicians, released on October 31, 2014, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (“CMS”) finally has given telehealth providers a glimpse of its plans to expand reimbursement for telehealth services provided to Medicare beneficiaries.
The final rule includes a provision that would cover remote chronic care management using a new current procedural terminology (“CPT”) code, 99490 (with a monthly unadjusted, non-facility fee of $42.60). This new CPT code can be bundled with the existing CPT code 99091 for collecting and reviewing patient data, which does not require the beneficiary to be present and pays an average monthly fee of $56.92 to the physician. The final rule also includes a provision that would cover remote-patient monitoring of chronic conditions using existing CPT code 99091 (with a monthly unadjusted, non-facility fee of $56.92). This provision will significantly broaden Medicare payments for remote patient monitoring of chronic conditions—while CPT code 99091 has been available for coverage of patient monitoring for many years, CMS traditionally has required (and will continue to require), that 99091 be billed in conjunction with evaluation and management (“E&M”) services (CPT codes 99201-99499), the most common of which are office visits. Yet, since the new CPT code 99490 is an E&M code and is intended for coverage of monitoring chronic conditions, the two services can now be combined as chronic care management and remote patient monitoring with a combined monthly fee of approximately $100. Notably, the 99490 and 99091 codes are available nationwide, as they are not considered by CMS as rural-only “telehealth” services. CMS also added seven new procedure codes for telehealth services, including annual wellness visits, psychotherapy services, and prolonged services in the office. Coverage under these new codes would begin in 2015.
Historically, Medicare has provided limited coverage for telehealth services, which has included coverage for interactive audio and video telecommunications that provide real-time communications between a practitioner and a Medicare beneficiary while the beneficiary is present at the encounter (Social Security Act § 1834(m); 42 C.F.R. § 410.78; Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, Medicare Benefit Policy Manual, ch. 15, § 270). Medicare only has covered the provision of telehealth services if the beneficiary is seen: (a) at an approved “originating site” (e.g., physician offices, hospitals, skilled nursing facilities); (b) by an approved provider (e.g., physicians, nurse practitioners, clinical psychologists); and (c) for a small defined set of services, including consultations, office visits, pharmacological management, and individual and group diabetes self-management training services.
In a November 1, 2014 news release, American Telemedicine Association CEO Jonathan Linkous stated that the new final rule “has been a long time coming, but this rulemaking signals a clear and bold step in the right direction for Medicare” and, importantly, “allows providers to use telemedicine technology to improve the cost and quality of healthcare delivery.”